ILS Approach Guides

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Postby ardypilot » Mon Oct 16, 2006 8:22 pm

Here is are a few Instrument Landing System (ILS) Approach Guides for those who need help landing aircraft in IFR conditions:

First Guide:

1. Use the App. mode in the autopilot, so the autopilot makes the approach for you and you don't have to move a finger. Well, actually you do have to move your fingers. You need to control the speed and flaps, landing gears, auto brakes, etc. But the approach is performed entirely by the autopilot. To land, just disengage the App. mode, switch off the Auto Throttle and other switches if you want, and land the plane manually. That's what I usually do. But is good practice to perform a hand-approach. But I also perform hand-approaches, which I'd recommend you to learn it. This point comes to the second option.
Note: To use the App. mode you should have to se the NAV/GPS switch to NAV and you also should have the ICAO code of the airport in your GPS.

2. Don't use the App. Mode and do the approach manually. I know this is hard but you just need to practice, practice, and practice.
Before approaching the airport, you should tune to the ILS frequency of the runway. That means, set the ICAO code of your destination airport, go to the frequencies page and find your ILS (or whatever approach you use) frequency. You should set the right frequency. Example: you are going to land on runway 09, look to the ILS 09 frequency.
After that, set that frequency into the radio stack and turn on the NAV 1 or 2. Also check the MRK (marker) button, which is going to make sounds when you pass through different markers, like OM, IM, and MM. Then, arm the spoilers, set the flaps, retract the landing gear and set the auto brakes.


Second Guide:
1. When ATC says something like "Wife Beater 767, you are 32 Miles away. Turn right heading 105, descend and maintain 2,500 feet, cleared ILS runway 36R Approach". You have to click on your MAP icon in your cockpit. Then, move your mouse over the destination airport. Mind you, the airport MUST have the ILS feathers (these are the green things that point to the runway). Double click on the airport. A list will show up. Scroll down the list until you see a chart that shows Runway numbers. Find 36R, or whatever your runway is. You look to the right and see a radio frequency. We'll use 100.100 because its easy to remember. Don't forget the frequency.


2. Open up your Radio Stack, and enter in 100.100 in the NAV1 Radio, usually the rightmost radio number is the one that can be messed with. After you enter it 100.100, using the mouse wheel or clicking it. Press the button that looks like this somewhat, its in the middle of the 2 radio displays < -- > That changes the NAV1 Radio frequency from whatever it was, to what it is now (100.100)

3.Turn on the NAV1 Radio by clicking the switch at the bottom of the radio stack, unless its already on, like with the Lear Jet.

4. If you have Autopilot, and you are using GPS to follow waypoints, switch the NAV/GPS button back to NAV!!!! YOU CANT FORGET TO DO THAT!!! YOU'LL BURN AND DIE IF YOU DONT!!

5. Follow ATC directions to approach. Now, when you approach the Runway, you will see the pink arrows near your attitude indicator move...usually heading first, then Altitude. Simply fly in the direction and attitude of the pink arrows until they center themselves, that means you're on the glideslope!

6. If you want to use the autopilot to fly the approach, simply follow steps 1-4, and then click the APPR button on the autopilot panel.


Third Guide:
1) You will receive a long approach clearence (if you are flying IFR and have filed a flightplan, that is). The clearence will tell you what approach you are taking, the QNH/QFE, and the distance you are from the airport. You need to write down the airport dictated in that clearence (if you don't already know it) and the runway and type of approach, i.e. ILS (type of approach) 29R (the runway).

2) You then need to go to your Map which is the little star like icon on the panel or go to the "World" menu at the top and click "Map".
You should see a purple or white line towards your destination airport from where you are. Follow this line to your airport, and double click on a runway at that airport in the map, (You might need to do this more than once, as sometimes it thinks your trying to change the route).

3) From the map, there should be a list of runways with a line of information after them. Find the runway that you received in your IFR clearence in point 1. Write down the runway heading i.e. 292 degrees, and the NAV frequency for the ILS of that runway, as well as the Airport Elevation which can be found in that same box above the list of runways (expressed as Elav. or something similar).

4) After you have all of that information written down, close the map and open your Radio Stack. Open up the radio stack and type the frequency you wrote down, into NAV1 and make sure it is in the primary position, meaning it is on the left as opposed to the right of the two dials. This can be done by pressing the < -- > button in the middle of them. At the bottom of the radio stack, there should be a row of clickable buttons, namely COM1, COM2, BOTH, NAV1, NAV2, ADF, DME etc. Click the NAV1 button as to illuminate the light.

5) Close the radio stack, and enter the runway heading you wrote down from the map, into the Autopilot panel (MCP), under the CRS section (Course). **In some aircraft such as the 747, the CRS selector is found on the Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) which is the compass on the panel, usually found under the Attitude Indicator.**

---You now have the approach set up, and should be flying towards your airport whilst descending. At about 30nm out, you should be around 9000 feet, descending at around 1500-1800 fpm with a speed of roughly 240 KIAS; aiming to reach 2800 feet by 15nm from the airport---

6) Once you reach the height and distance of 2800 feet from 15nm out, you will now be hearing the ILS Morse code identifier and you should be roughly on course, according to the HSI (but only if you have remembered to type the ILS course into the course selector). You will soon enter the glideslope pattern where you will need to slow down considerably to stay on it, about 180 MAXIMUM in a jet.

7) At this point, or around 10nm out, at the same altitude, you should receive a clearence to land from ATC.

-For Autopilot to control the descent on the ILS = Number 8
-To hand fly visually on the ILS = Number 12

-> For Autopilot to descend on the ILS...
8) Switch the GPS / NAV switch to NAV instead of GPS.

9) Make sure you have Autopilot on, your speed is at or below 180 KIAS, and you are at a height of 2800 feet. Press the APP button at around 10 nm out, and the aircraft will follow its path down vertically and laterally until you get to 500 feet AGL.

10) You will have to control flaps, speed and gear on this approach. At 500 feet AGL, you must disengage the Autopilot and hand fly the last 500 feet.

11) Once you land, slow down and taxi from the runway.

-> For visual landing on the ILS...
12) On the attitude indicator on the right and bottom side or similarly on the HSI, white indicator lines shall appear, with a pink triangle on both the vertical and horizontal set of lines. The big line in the middle is the centre of the approach and is the correct glideslope. If you are too high, the triangle on the vertical axis will be below the middle line and vice versa. If you are too far to the left, the line will appear to the right of the middle bigger line, indicating that you should turn to the right until it centers. To put it simply, fly towards the lines as to centre them.

13) Do this all the way down to the runway threshold; making small movements on the control surfaces to center the arrows / lines on the HSI or attitude indicator. You can use the AP to control the speed if you find this easier. At the same time, you need to control flaps and gear etc.

I've shown what is meant by intercepting from below here:



The red line is the aircrafts track toward the ILS glideslope. As you can see, the beam of the ILS extends to around 15-20nm. When the aircraft flies along the red line to the red 'X' they are engaged in the glideslope beam and the vertical indicator will show that the aircraft is centered. From this point, the aircraft needs to start descending; below 2800 feet to stay in the center of the 2 lines, which get closer and closer together until the threshold of runway 1.

If you were to try and intercept the glideslope from above then you could be too high and miss the glideslope completely and have to dive to lose altitude to get centered on the ILS. If you intercept from below, (as opposed to roughly where the black arrow is) then you are guaranteed to 'hit' the ILS beam so it centers itself for you once you get to point 'X'. I hope you understand this vague explanation.
Last edited by ardypilot on Fri Jun 13, 2008 5:14 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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Postby Alex » Tue Oct 17, 2006 3:09 pm

Yup, also, with Category III (3) ILS systems you can autoland if your aircraft is capable. Unfortunately none of those in NZ. Usually decision height is 200-300ft depending on the aircraft, airport, approach and weather. The Decision Height (hereby referred to as 'DH') is when you decide to land, and proceed visually, or go around.

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Postby Jimmy » Tue Oct 17, 2006 4:03 pm

I was reading an interesting lesson in the computer pilot magazine a few nights ago, I read that its actuly illegal to hand fly a catIIIc aproach, mandatory hands off :blink: except you do have to have 3working autopilots and FMCs!

Wasn't there something on the news a while ago about nzaa getting a CatIII ils?
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Postby towerguy » Tue Oct 17, 2006 10:09 pm

yes - its going onto 23L - a lot of the work was done during the last runway refurbishment - lights etc and is still on going now - it is due early next year I think!?
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Postby Alex » Wed Oct 18, 2006 4:19 pm

Oh cool, no more probs with the fog then. Not that there are a lot anyway...

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Postby towerguy » Wed Oct 18, 2006 4:51 pm

checked at work today - initially it will be catII first until about dec2007 when it goes catIII but we won't have the required taxiway lights so it will mean restricted use ie 1 acft lands and then taxis right in to the gate or a fixed identifiable position before anything else can move
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Postby ZK-Brock » Sun Feb 25, 2007 11:34 am

Any update on the CATIII?
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Postby towerguy » Sun Feb 25, 2007 7:38 pm

yeah half the F#@king airport dug up at the moment, we effectively only have A1 then it's right down to A3/4 intersecton so its really easy to get totally gridlocked if not careful!

it will be coming online in stages and each stage has to operate totally fault free for set times. If it has a fault then the timing starts all over again. even when it is operational it has to be used a certain amount or it has to be revalidated again.

so as you can see it is a long laborious job.
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Postby shotgun » Sat May 16, 2009 10:31 am

Thanks for the tips clapping.gif
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